TUESDAY, APRIL 23, 2013
MORDICA MEMORIAL LECTURE
"The importance of package size in the manufacture of steel tire cord," by Thomas W. Tyl, Tire Wire Technology LLC, USA. Presented by Jeffrey T. Tyl.
First advances to increase package size in steel tire cord manufacturing came from reducing labor by reducing the number of times payoff and take-up carriers require changing. However, there are more profound effects when very large carriers contain no welds. Reduction of waste, increased equipment utilization, decreased breakage at wet drawing and twisting, improved drawing performance, reduction or elimination of partial fine drawing payoff spools, and more consistent product quality are all benefits. This paper suggests that, rather than determining the amount of material on a carrier based on length, a preferred method applies material on a take-up capable of carrying the weight of an entire coil through the entire manufacturing process regardless of continuous length.
DIES & DRAWING TEMPERATURE
"Improved wire quality with advanced TCHP dies," by Daniel J. Cunningham and John Keane, Allomet Corporation; and Roger Wright, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA.
Improvements in strength/weight ratios have created many challenges due to the increasingly brittle nature of high-strength materials. The superior quality of wire drawn through TCHP dies is showing a decrease of up to 80% in wire rupture in secondary processing operations compared with wire drawn using conventional WC dies. This paper highlights the characteristics of wire drawn through these TCHP dies and also provides insight into the factors governing these improvements in wire quality.
"The influence of die approach and die bearing on properties of high-carbon steel wire," by Justyna Adamczyk, Maciej Suliga, Marek Gała, and Jan W. Pilarczyk, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland.
This paper assesses the influence of the die approach and bearing on mechanical-technological properties of high-carbon steel wires. The drawing process of Φ2.9 mm wires to the final wire of Φ1.98 mm was conducted in 5 passes, by means of a multi-die drawing Koch machine. The drawing speeds in the final passes were 4 m/s. The investigation of mechanical-technological properties was conducted for wires drawn according to four variants, in which yield strength, tensile strength, uniform and total elongation, reduction of area, the number of twists and the number of bends were determined.
"Temperatures in the wiredrawing process—measurements and simulations," by Joakim Larsson, Helena Johansson-Cider, and Magnus Jarl, Örebro University, Sweden.
Temperatures are important in the wiredrawing process, and measurements are very tricky. Simulations show very high temperatures in the contact between wire and die. For this study, thermocouples were welded to the nibs, a very sensitive arrangement in a wiredrawing plant. This paper reports and analyzes measurements of nib temperatures and compares them with FEM simulations. The wire cooling on blocks was measured by pyrometers. These measurements are sensitive to the wire brightness especially for stainless wire.
"Research of heat generation mechanism in wiredrawing with FEM analysis," by Ryuta Kawaguchi, Motoo Asakawa, Yohei Ohno, Takahiro Shirakawa, and Shinnya Kojima, Waseda University, Japan.
Recently, higher quality of wires is in demand for cold forging wires. In order to improve products, it is necessary for the wire to maintain a low temperature. This research investigates the heat generation factor during drawing using FEM analysis to compare experimental drawing conditions. It presents results for a heating and cooling mechanism between the wire and the die during drawing and a method for suppressing rises in temperature.
SHAPING & STRAIGHTENING
"Processing technology of high dimensional accuracy shaped wiredrawing for spring wire," by Kazunari Yoshida, Kenta Suga, and Keita Nakazima, Tokai University; and Kotaro Watanabe and Koji Umezu, Tama Spring Co. Ltd., Japan.
Shaped wires, in preference to round wires, are often used for spring wires used in automobiles and machines to reduce weight and to improve strength. It is not easy to obtain a high dimensional accuracy shaped wire by drawing. In this study, two-pass shaped wire drawings of spring steel wire were carried out by using a middle die and a finish die to clarify the conditions for making a high dimensional accuracy shaped wire.
"New straightening method using rotational blade and tension annealing for fine wires," by Kazuki Tsurumi, Motoo Asakawa, Natsuki Kato, and Kota Sakumoto, Waseda University; and Tomio Kanno, Takashima Sangyo Co. Ltd., Japan.
Recently, higher straightness has become widely used for development of medical and electronic devices. Rotational blade straightening is commonly used to three-dimensionally straighten fine wires. In the current method, two blades are used for bending and counter bending a wire. In a new method examined in this paper, intentional twisting is applied for straightening, instead of the current bending method for stainless steel wires. Furthermore, it was revealed that straightness is greatly improved by tension annealing after straightening.
"Roll bending technologies for highly accurate compression ring of automobile engine," by Yuma Watanabe, Motoo Asakawa, and Hiroshi Iwanaga, Waseda University, Japan.
Compression piston rings are essential parts of an automobile engine. The rings are produced by four-roll bending using high-tensile steel alloy. However, defective phenomena of the distortion and the gap, etc., occasionally occur. This research aims to improve the compression ring with more accurate dimensions by using FEM analysis and experimentation. It was found that these defects were reduced through arrangement of the roll and intermesh.
"High-precision roll-bending of titanium alloy wire for glasses," by Yuichiro Sekine, Motoo Asakawa, Natsuki Kato, Yuki Takebe, and Shuzo Matsuo, Waseda University; and Yoshinori Sasaki and Masami Matsumura, Industrial Technology Center of Fukui Prefecture, Japan.
Eyeglass frames are generally made of titanium alloy. However, conforming to a designer's shape is difficult because titanium alloy has a large springback. Actually, producing rims—the part of the frame to which the lens is affixed—depends on the experience and skill of workers. This paper investigates the improved methods of high-precision roll-bending for rim production by experiment and FEM analysis.
CLEANING & COATING
"Mechanical descaling with sanders," by Oliver Funke, WiTechs GmbH, Germany.
This presentation discusses the latest improvements to planetary belt grinding machines (sanders). It discusses the function of the sander; application areas; a more compact and efficient design; new rolls for increasing the lifetime of grinding belts and rolls; improved maintenance friendliness by means of improved accessibility; and design that accommodates installation of an automatic belt position control.
"Mechanical descaling with steel wool: Lisciani rod preparation," by Marco Graziani, R. Lisciani Trafilerie SpA, Italy.
This presentation begins with an introduction of the characteristics of rod scale fit for mechanical descaling. It features an illustration of modular Lisciani descalers designed for simple and effective rod preparation at lower operating costs through the use of patented static and rotary presses that clench steel wool around the surface of the rod passing through. The continuous compensation of the steel wool wear results in a constant cleaning quality.
"Mechanical descaling with brushes," by Rob Fulop, Wire Lab Co., USA.
This presentation discusses an alternative to acid cleaning for manufacturers producing the highest quality wire products. In response to customers’ processing requirements, Wire Lab Company supplies the model 1250 automatic brush descaling system in a dual brushing head configuration. The company’s mechanical descaling technology aims to provide steel wire manufacturers with more choices in systems for wire rod preparation designed with the operator in mind.
Mechanical Descaling Q&A
"New efficient and ecological surface cleaning technique for ferrous and nonferrous wires," by Rory A. Wolf, Enercon Industries Corp., USA.
Recent methods of degreasing and oxide removal to improve wire coating adhesion have employed high-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma treatments. Although environmentally sound, these methods occupy a significant amount of production space and consume considerable amounts of operational energy. This paper describes a newly-developed atmospheric plasma technology which removes drawing lubricants and oxide contaminations at significantly lower energy consumption rates. The atmospheric pressure plasma technique and trial data which defines the operational protocols are detailed.
"Plasma annealing of stainless steel and nickel alloy wire—efficient, high-speed alternative to traditional tube annealing," by Primoz Eiselt, Igor Rogelj, Peter Ziger, and Alois Ulrich Gruber, Plasmait GmbH, Austria.
The paper outlines plasma annealing of stainless steel and nickel alloy wire in the diameter range of 0.5 mm to 5 mm. The workings of the plasma annealer and its components are explained. The production process is compared to the traditional tube annealing furnace in terms of process layout; production speed/output per line; pre-cleaning concept and environmental impact of both processes; power consumption; gas consumption; maintenance; and mechanical and surface properties and related drawability of the annealed materials.
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 24, 10:00 A.M. TO 4:00 P.M.
"Vanadium and niobium microalloying to increase strength of high-carbon wire steels," by Stephanie L. Miller and Emmanuel De Moor, Colorado School of Mines, USA.
In order to investigate the effect of V, Nb, and N additions on the strength of eutectoid steels, laboratory heats were prepared and continuous cooling experiments were conducted using a Gleeble® 3500 thermomechanical simulator. V strengthening effects were observed in all microalloyed steels, and maximum strengthening was observed in the V+N steel. The V+Nb steel was found to have the greatest refinement of colony size and ILS, and subsequently higher hardness among the test alloys.
"Properties of high-carbon steel wires drawn at extremely slow speed," by Yoshiro Yamada, Yamada Research & Consulting, Japan.
Tensile strength at levels 200 to 500 MPa higher than that of JIS piano wire was attained without sacrificing ductility by repeatedly drawing high-carbon steel wires at a speed of 0.05 meters/min. These high strength levels were reached by continuous dry drawing at ordinary speeds when the Kobe direct water cooling system was applied. This paper investigates this process, as well as the strain aging phenomena of drawn high-carbon steel wires with lamellar and spheroidal pearlite structures.
"The comparison analysis of the mechanical properties of wires from TRIP steel with different carbon content," by Sylwia Wiewiórowska, Zbigniew Muskalski, and Jan W. Pilarczyk, Czestochowa University of Technology; and Marek Siemiński, Metalurgia SA, Poland.
This paper shows a comparison analysis of mechanical properties of TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) effect steel wires with different carbon content, classified into a group of AHSS (Advanced High-Strength Steel) steels, which are the multiphase steels offering a unique combination of high strength and ductility. This combination is achieved through the transformation of retained austenite to martensite in the TRIP deformation process. The decrease of carbon content influences the amount of retained austenite in the steel structure and consequently the mechanical properties of the drawn wire.
"The state of the art of saw wire process technology," by Wolfgang Weidenhaupt, Metcore Stahltechnik GmbH, Germany.
Saw wire is mainly used for cutting polycrystalline silicon ingots into wafers which are applied in photovoltaic panels. A strong growing market requires the highest demands of saw wire technology. Diameters between 0,06 and 0,12 mm and tensile strength in the range of 4.000 to 5.000 N/mm² belongs to the group of high-carbon wires. The product requires a super clean steel, a consistent patenting and brass plating technology, and a special fine wire drawing process.
"Optimization of extrusion and wiredrawing of magnesium alloys using the finite element method and distributed computing," by Andriej Milenin and Piotr Kustra, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
This paper is devoted to the production of thin wire of special alloys of magnesium containing calcium supplements (MgCa08, Ax30). It proposes a process model for extrusion and drawing based on a modified finite element method that takes into account the processes of fracture and allowing the use of distributed computing and clusters of computers. Due to extremely low technological plasticity of these alloys during metal forming, the narrow range of allowable parameters for extrusion and drawing does not lead to the fracture of the wire during deformation. The resulting wire contained no fracture and had high mechanical properties.
"Technology production and properties of high-strength and high-conductivity nanostructured copper-silver wires for new type overhead line conductors," by Artur Kawecki, Tadeusz Knych, Eliza Sieja-Smaga, Andrzej Mamala, Paweł Kwaśniewski, Grzegorz Kiesiewicz, Beata Smyrak, and Kinga Korzeń, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland. This paper presents research results of manufacturing composite filamentary nanostructure Cu-Ag alloys with 6% wt. silver addition. A suitable quantity and process sequence of high deformation plastic working and heat treatment type solubility-precipitate allows for wires constituted from Cu and Ag fibers with nanometric cross-dimensions and provide high mechanical strength, high electrical conductivity, and sufficient ductility of Cu-Ag alloys.
"Improvement of ductility of aluminum drawn wire by alternate drawing," by Kazunari Yoshida and Kota Doi, Tokai University, Japan.
This paper proposes "alternate drawing" for high ductility as a production method of aluminum wire for an automotive wiring harness. Alternate drawing promises to decrease the additional shearing strain by alternating the drawing direction of every one pass or several passes. To confirm its usefulness, a comparison of the ductility between alternately drawn wires and unidirectionally drawn wires was made through the results of tensile testing and texture analysis.
"Eco Initiative environmental sustainability program," by Jane Van, Leggett & Platt Inc., USA.
The Eco Initiative program is an environmental management system developed to help Leggett & Platt Inc. branches create and maintain a strong, proactive environmental program, and is designed to include a high level of employee participation. The system helps address legal, commercial, and other challenges related to the environment. General concepts include 1. commitment and policy—top management involvement; 2. planning—review of operations and legal requirements, setting objectives, and development; 3. implementation—execution at branch level; 4. evaluation—branches audit and monitor progress; and 5. review—branches review and modify accordingly.
"The monitoring and controlling of wire tension on stranding and similar rotating process machinery," by Steve Leibold, FMS USA Inc., USA.
This paper provides an overview of the evolution of tension control systems, concluding with current process control technologies and future trends. It details the possibilities that exist today to make the best use of slip rings or radio transmission to enable wire tension and auxiliary data communication between the rotating sections of the machine and the stationary control center. As strand tension is a very important factor in wire and cable production, the paper highlights the potential for quality improvement, production rate increase, and scrap reduction.
"Energy-efficient operation of pulse-jet dust collection systems," by Kelly Zipsie, GE Power and Water, USA.
This presentation outlines methods that contribute to reducing energy consumption on a dust collection system to support energy-saving initiatives. It examines: 1. the most common opportunities for excessive energy consumption in dust collection systems, 2. basic assumptions and establishment of baseline information for energy cost, compressed air savings, and how static pressure impacts overall operating cost, and 3. a generic case study to illustrate potential impact.
"The potential for lubricant dust explosions in the wiredrawing industry," by David P. Gzesh, Blachford Corporation, USA; and C. Ian Sidders, Yafeng (Alvin) Lian, and Jean V. Reid, H. L. Blachford Ltd., Canada.
In the last few years, the chemical and manufacturing industry has come under closer government scrutiny due to the issue of combustible dust explosions resulting in the loss of life in the workplace. Although none of these events has been associated with the wire industry, the wiredrawing producers and their dry powder lubricant suppliers have become more aware of the importance of understanding and controlling dust when handling or using these products. A review of the physical properties and the formation mechanism of combustible dust will be presented along with suggestions on minimizing dust accumulations to comply with new workplace regulations.
THURSDAY, APRIL 25, 10:00 A.M. TO 1:00 P.M.
10:00 -10:30 a.m.
"Success recycling with acid recovery," by Chuck Amori, Crown Technology Inc./Acid Recovery Systems Inc., USA.
With acid recovery systems in place, two Leggett & Platt facilities keep acid costs below 30 cents per ton of steel pickled. By running a continuous recovery system, the bath solutions contain lower iron levels and therefore less residue on the surface of the wire to allow a more uniform coating for good drawing. This presentation details systems that not only recover all the acid that would be lost to hauling or neutralization, but also produce a moist, usable iron sulfate. The system offers savings in raw acid and revenue from re-selling Ferrous Sulfate Heptahydrate.
10:30 -11:00 a.m.
"Optimized wire pickling management," by Kevin Wolff, Scanacon Inc., USA.
To achieve an optimized pickling process, control of free acid concentration, dissolved metal concentration, circulation, temperature, suspended solids, and secondary waste handling need to operate cohesively in a "total system" approach. Designing a comprehensive management strategy for a pickling line needs to address the key variables in a cost effective, maintenance and operational friendly manner. Mid South Wire Co. is a case where implementing this approach has resulted in increased productivity, reduced acid consumption, lower waste generation, and improved product quality over previous practice.
11:00 -11:30 a.m.
"Economic and chemical comparisons of hydrochloric acid recovery technologies for pickling operations," by Jared Cullivan and Bryan Cullivan, Beta Control Systems Inc., USA.
This paper presents an evaluation of available technologies to recover hydrochloric acid from spent wire pickling solutions. Technologies reviewed include prohydrolysis, acid retardation, diffusion dialysis, and evaporative recovery. A case study, based on typical batch pickling waste, examines energy consumption, chemical mass balance, and end products. An economic review of the capital and operating expenses is also presented.
11:30 a.m. -12:00 p.m.
"Influence of the strain rate on the mechanical response of prestressing steel wires in cold drawing," by Francisco Gálvez, José Miguel Atienza, and Manuel Elices, Madrid Polytechnic University, Spain.
To obtain realistic solutions using the Finite Element Method, precise knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the wires is required. Increasing drawing speed in modern processing results in high strain rates. However, the mechanical behavior of the wires is described only by means of static tensile tests, far from the actual drawing conditions. Static and dynamic tests were performed on prestressing steel wires to study the influence of strain rate on the mechanical response of wires during drawing.
"Modeling centerline damage with DEFORM®," by Christian Regalado and Roger N. Wright, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA.
The DEFORM® metalworking modeling system can be applied to the development of centerline damage, by way of the Cockcroft and Latham workability criterion, and this paper summarizes such recent work at Rensselaer. Near-centerline flow in the absence and presence of an inclusion has been modeled, and comparisons have been made to Cockcroft and Latham projections from tensile testing. Beyond this, shear strain modeling has been undertaken, both for shear strains at the "equator" of spherical inclusions and for chevron-shaped shear strain fields.
"Validation of your high-value wire and rope products on material fatigue with state-of-the-art bend-rotation and bend-over-sheave test equipment," by Philippe van Bogaert, Bogimac Engineering NV, Belgium.
Some defects that are important reasons for fatigue failure do not influence static testing substantially. Applied metallurgy and drawing work may greatly improve the static strength of wire, but reduce the material fatigue life because of residual stresses, lack of resilience, and increased brittleness. This paper presents specifics on the use of modern fatigue testing equipment for the wire and rope industry, as well as for related manufacturing, including tires. It also reviews the specific statistical methods to handle the results in case of multi-modal distributions, typical for high-fatigue and life-cycle testing.
10:00 -10:30 a.m.
"Modernization opportunities for today's aluminum mills," by David Gow, Siemens Industry Inc., USA.
Close to half of today's aluminum mills are more than 20 years old. A number of modernization steps offer ways to extend mill life and reduce maintenance costs, improve reliability, increase production, and reduce product defects. This paper discusses several new technologies that offer opportunities to make incremental improvements that deliver significant savings. In particular, it discusses developments in dual reel coiler technology from Siemens VAI.
"Energy-efficient pulling and winding," by Juan Carlos González Villar, Kabel.Consult.Ing, Germany.
Winders demonstrate that ambitious power reduction goals are within reach, particularly for the wire and cable industry. Anyone who takes a closer look at the operating instructions will notice that the ratio of net power requirement to installed power is very small, a condition known as a power "mismatch." Depending on spool diameter, rotational speed, and pulling force, wire and cable manufacturers have until now been forced to pay out (every year) a lot of money for unnecessary power consumption.
11:00 -11:30 a.m.
"Wiredrawing lubricants and the conversion from copper to aluminum," by Troy Carr, Etna Products Inc. and Etna-Bechem Lubricants Ltd., USA.
This paper describes the various types of aluminum wiredrawing lubricants including conventional straight-oil type products and water-soluble type products that are gaining in popularity in aluminum drawing. The volatility of copper pricing in recent years has stirred debate in the industry about copper vs. aluminum. This paper discusses the best practice methods and key process items for converting a lubricant system from copper to aluminum. This includes lubricant type, system cleanout, filtration needs or changes, and lubricant care and maintenance.
11:30 a.m. -12:00 p.m.
"Continuous casting of copper-magnesium conductor alloys," by Michael Nairn, Rautomead Ltd., UK.
International demand for copper conductors exhibiting both high tensile strength and good electrical conductivity is growing strongly. The high speed rail and the automotive industries are two major sectors with these requirements. Properties of available materials are considered. Continuous casting processes are compared. Graphite furnace technology is described with its special advantages for handling the volatile Mg element. Most recent innovation in alloy control through controlled feeding of Mg cored wire is featured.
"Ultra-D ultrasonic degassing and processing of aluminum," by Victor Rundquist and Kiran Manchiraju, Southwire Co., USA.
This paper presents the experimental method used and results obtained from an ultrasonic system used on a continuous rod, casting and rolling line with pure and alloyed aluminum, as well as in a large-scale die casting shop. The paper presents various methods used to measure the dissolved hydrogen and the resulting product improvements after ultrasonic degassing. It also discusses sampling methods and results of spectrum analysis and inclusion measurement. Finally, it discusses the sources of contamination from hydrogen, solid inclusions, and dissolved trace elements.
"Scrap refining for copper rod production," by Timm Lux and Bernhard Hanusch, Andritz Maerz GmbH, Germany.
Using scrap suitable for fire-refined copper products is becoming a greater priority under current economic conditions. Direct-to-Wire® is a fire-refining technology for optimized production of copper rod (FRHC copper rod) and comparable products from copper scrap. This paper discusses different furnace types and gives examples where these furnaces should be installed in new and existing copper plants.
"Optimizing shielded pair manufacturing," by Juliusz Poltz, OptEM Engineering Inc., Canada, and Mats Josefsson, Ericsson AB, Sweden.
This paper presents a method of maximizing the quality of shielded pairs with skin-foam-skin insulation. The method utilizes sensitivities and manufacturing tolerances to predict tolerances for attenuation and impedance. It is demonstrated that higher impedance cables are less sensitive to all dimensional parameters and can be manufactured with higher manufacturing tolerances at lower costs. Based on required manufacturing yield for cables, the limits for manufacturing process tolerances and minimum requirements for quality of materials are estimated.
"Of rodents, termites, and wires—non-toxic pest protection in cables," by Chaitanya Joshi, C Tech Corporation, India; and PolyOne Corp., USA.
Pest protection in plastics is essential. Rodents, termites, and subterranean insects cause considerable damage to wires and cables used in various applications. Existing methods such as armoring and conventional pesticides have inherent limitations. Thus there is a need for employing innovative masterbatch formulations for safeguarding polymeric applications. Rodrepel®™, Termirepel®™, and Combirepel®™ are non-toxic and non-hazardous aversive, environmentally friendly additives developed specifically for use as a masterbatch to address pest damage in plastics.
"Application constraints and design considerations for military cable harness," by Barbaros Şerbetçi, Aselsan Inc., Turkey.
Military wire harness is specially designed for the harshest environments. This need is well-known by producers and consumers of various products that require military specifications. This paper defines application of MIL-Spec wires and gives information about wire harness design with examples.
Schedule subject to change.