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Enamelled Copper Wires

7 years 9 months ago #387 by Archived Forum Admin
Two types of enamelling furnaces are there. First one in which wire passes through oven with direct heating to required temperature with heaters . Second one in which wire passes through a Stainless Steel tube (just like annealing tube) which is heated to required temperature by heaters i.e. indirect heating. The size of Enamelled wire is 0.40 MM.

Which furnace will produce better curing and wire properties and why ?

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7 years 9 months ago #388 by Archived Forum Admin
There are two very good magnet wire engineering specialists that monitor the Forums and answer questions. I have been in contact with one of them but he is extremely busy at the moment.

Sorry for the delay but please have patience. Thank you.

Peter J. Stewart-Hay
Stewart-Hay Associates

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7 years 9 months ago #389 by Archived Forum Admin
Rohit, sorry for taking so long to respond.

Actually there are more than two oven variations. First they can be electrically heated or by burning combustible gases. They can also be radiant, recirculating air, or a combination of the two. Additionally the air can flow against the direction the wire moves, with the wire, or with it in the evaporation zone and against it in the curing zone.

To keep it simple, lets call the area that the wet wire enters after leaving the enamel applicator, the wire chamber

Some ovens are designed for a single wire making multiple passes (anywhere from 5 to about 20 or so) through the oven chamber. Other ovens may have multiple wires making multiple passes through the same chamber. Years ago it was not unusual to have as many as 24 lines running on the same oven.. In most cases the wire sizes were similar and the enamel coating the same. This was because most takeups were gang type and if the sizes or enamel varied you would have to compromise your temperature and speed setting to achieve average conditions. When all wires were the same and enamels the same you could set up the system to maximize conditions – speed, cure, wire quality, etc.

The newer enameling systems generally have from 1 to 4 lines but they run 10 – 20 times faster than was capable 20 years ago. With some of the new systems you have the flexibility to easily run different wire sizes and maximize performance as well as flexibility. Additionally the newer machines are almost always equipped with inline wire drawing so instead of having a 100 Kilo payoff spool, you might have a 1,000 kilo payoff package. Inline wire drawing allows you to have less bare wire inventory plus the payoff line speed is a fraction of the speed of the enameled wire. (May be 2mm at payoff and 0.4 mm at take-up.)

The oldest type of ovens are radiant heating. The wire chamber may have been heated by gas burners, electric heaters, etc. In some cases the heaters were attached to the wire chamber and sometimes just near it. There was very little air movement through the wire chamber and speed was limited because of that.

The first circulated air oven were inclined or vertical and fresh air passed over the electric heaters or gas burner, entered the wire chamber and naturally exited with the wire. At some companies these ovens were referred to as “Smokies” because that is what they did.

The first variation of the circulated air oven occurred when the fume laden air was pulled by a fan back across the burner or heater and then went back into the wire chamber. Some of the fumes were burned by either the flames form the burner or making contact with the electric heating element. This was a very inefficient way to clean the air. About 1947 the first catalyst was developed for enameling ovens. The metal mat catalyst had a precious metal coating; platinum and palladium. When the solvent vapors contacted the active sites on the catalyst the solvents were ignited. Because the air was cleaner, the wire could run faster.

GE recirculating ovens also incorporated radiant panels in the evaporation zone. Air flow was with the wire and the wire chamber was wider at the entrance than at the exit. This meant that the air flow was hotter and faster at the wire exit than entrance. Now that you had different temperatures, the wire chamber was now referred to as the evaporation chamber and the curing chamber. The evaporation chamber is were the wet wire is exposed to heat, solvents evaporated and then as it progresses to the other end of the oven or cure chamber, the semi dry wire is cured.

In the 60’s Acrometal developed the bi-directional recirculating oven. In the evaporation zone the air moved in the direction the wire moved. Just below the half way point of the oven was a section called the interchange. In the curing zone the air moved against the direction of the wire. The evaporation air stream and the curing air stream met at the interchange where it was then returned to the air heating section and through the catalysts. Since the catalyst burned the solvents while cleaning the air, the heat released from the burning solvent was recovered and used to cure the wire. This reduced fuel or electrical consumption.

You have asked which type oven works best. The answer to that is what kind of product are making? Copper, aluminum? What type enamel? Single enamel, dual, triple, bondable, etc? Are you make standard spec or special dimensions.

Depending upon those answers can have an effect on what type oven is best.


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7 years 9 months ago #390 by Archived Forum Admin
The product would be Copper Enamelled Wires and Enamel would be polyester base , single coat . Dimesions would be standard fine and medium covering .Which furnace would give better tangent delta or optimum curing . Radiant with direct heaters , Radiant with indirect heating , Convectional with exhaust fumes recirculation or Convectional with catalytic converter.

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7 years 9 months ago #391 by Archived Forum Admin
I thought I had responded to this the other day and perhaps I did and my response was deleted. What I said the other day was that if you have a good machine set up person, they could make good wire with a bread toaster.

Unfortunately I had an event in which I met with several of my old friends and previous manufacturing associates. I mentioned my comment to one of them who may well be one of the best magnet wire technicial I have ever known and he agreed with the comment: It really doesn't matter what type of equipment you use if production speeds, stack emissions, energy consumtion, equipment cost etc. are not a part of the equation. I commented to him about my bread toaster oven and he confirmed that a good technician set up person could easily make wire with a toaster.

However if you are concerned about energy cost, the environment, production cost and productivity, and equipment cost, and will be make large quantities of wire, then you should get an enamelling system that is highly energy efficient (gas fired or electric) has inline wire drawing, recirculates or utilizes the energy in the solvents, etc.

After that if comes down to the guy setting up the machine.


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7 years 9 months ago #392 by Archived Forum Admin
Welcome back Spectre,

After you told me you had responded I think with your i-phone, I went to look at the response but there was nothing there so I guess it didn't take properly. I did not want to bother you though for other reasons as privately discussed.

Best Personal Regards,
Peter J. Stewart-Hay
Stewart-Hay Associates

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